2013 KCSE CRE Past Paper
43.1 Christian Religious Education Paper 1 (313/1)
1.(a) Identify the ﬁve poetic books in the Bible. (5 marks)
(b) Outline the translation of the Bible from the original language to local languages.(8 marks)
(c) Describe seven ways in which Christians use the Bible to spread the gospel today.- (7 marks)
2. (a) Describe the incident when Abraham was willing to sacriﬁce his son Isaac. I (Genesis 22: 1-19) (6 marks)
(b) Give four differences between the Jewish and traditional African practices of circumcision. (8 marks)
(c) State six ways in which Christians identify themselves in the society today. (6 marks)
3.(a) How did prophet Samuel promote the worship of Yahweh in Israel? (8 marks)
(b) Explain six effects of idolatry in Israel during the time of prophet Elijah. (6 marks)
(c) What lessons can Christians learn about social justice from the story of Naboth’s vineyard? (6 marks)
4.(a) Identify six characteristics of false prophets in the Old Testament. (6 marks)
(b) Describe the teaching of prophet Amos on Israel’s election. (6 marks)
(c) State eight factors that hinder Christians from practicing their faith in God. (8 marks)
5.(a) Outline the measures taken by Nehemiah to restore the Jewish community after the completion of the wall of Jerusalem. (7 marks)
(b) Explain why Nehemiah introduced the policy of separation of Jews from foreigners.(8 marks)
(c) Identify ﬁve ways in which the govemment of Kenya supports church leaders in their work. . (5 marks)
6.(a) Outline the causes of death in traditional African communities. (6 marks)
(b) Explain the signiﬁcance of rituals performed after the death of a person in traditional African communities. (7 marks)
(c) List seven moral values promoted during funeral ceremonies in traditional African communities. (7 marks)
4.3.2 Christian Religious Education Paper 2 (313/2)
1.(a) With reference to Luke 1: 8-20, describe the annunciation of the birth of John the Baptist. (6 marks)
(b) What do Christians learn about the person and mission of John the Baptist from the message of angel Gabriel to Zechariah? (6 marks)
(c) State eight ways in which the church in Kenya assists families to cope with the challenges facing them today. (8 marks)
2.(a) Describe the call of the ﬁrst disciples of Jesus. (Luke 5:1-11). (8 marks)
(b) Give six reasons why Jesus chose the twelve disciples. (6 marks)
(c) Identify six lessons that Christians learn from the call of the ﬁrst disciples. (6 marks)
3.(a) Outline Jesus’ teaching on watchfulness and readiness. (Luke 12:35-48). (8 marks)
(b) Narrate the parable of the widow and the unjust judge. (Luke 18:1-8). (6 marks)
(c) Give six reasons why Christians should have faith in God. (6 marks)
4.(a) Identify the gifts of the Holy Spirit according to Saint Paul. (1 Corinthians 12: 7-11).(8 marks)
(b) How was the life of Peter transformed on the day of Pentecost? (6 marks)
(c) Explain six ways in which the gifts of the Holy Spirit are abused in the church today.(6 marks)
5.(a) State the importance of leisure. (6 marks)
(b) Identify seven leisure activities common to both Christianity and traditional Africa communities. (7 marks)
(c) Explain the dangers of using illicit drugs among the youth in Kenya today. (7 marks)
6.(a) Explain how science and technology has improved human life. (8 marks)
(b) Give six reasons why Christians are opposed to euthanasia. (6 marks)
(c) Identify ways through which Christians can help to control desertiﬁcation. (6 marks)
2013 KCSE CRE Past Paper-Marking Scheme/Answers
53.1 Christian Religious Education Paper l (313/1)
1.(a)The poetic books in the Bible
(v) Song of Solomon.
5 x l 5 marks
(b) Translation of the Bible from the original languages to local languages
(i) The Old Testament was originally written in Hebrew.
(ii) The New Testament was originally written in Greek.
(iii) The Old Testament was translated from Hebrew into Greek.
(iv) The entire Bible was translated into Latin by Jerome.
(v) The Bible was translated directly from Hebrew and Greek into English by William Tyndall.
(VI) The Bible was translated into national languages of European countries during the period of Reformation.
(vii) It was translated from English into Swahili by Dr. Kraph.
(vii) The Bible has been translated into other local languages by the Bible Society of Kenya/individuals.
(4 x 2= 8 marks
) (c)Ways in which Christians use the Bible to spread the Gospel today
(i) The Bible is the main source book for Christian sermons.
(ii) It is used in the writing of Christian literature.
(iii) The Bible is used when composing songs.
(iv) It is used in the production of Christian movies/videos/radio programs/plays.
(v) the Bible is used in swearing/taking of oath of allegiance.
(vi) It is used to organize Bible studies/teaching Sunday/Sabbath schools.
(vii) Verses from the Bible are used for imprints/posters.
(viii) The Bible is used in writing of doctrines for different denominations.
(ix) Biblical texts are used in teaching of Christian Religious Education.
(X) It is used to offer guidance and counselling.
(7 x 1= 7 marks)
2.(a)The incident when Abraham was willing to sacriﬁce his son Isaac.
(i) God told Abraham to take his only son to the land of Moriah to offer him as a sacriﬁce.
(ii) Abraham took his son, two servants and wood for Burnt offering.
(iii) They arrived at the place after a three day ’s journey.
(iv) Abraham commanded his servants to remain behind as he and Isaac went up to worship.
(v) He took Isaac, the ﬁrewood and the knife, and went up.
(vi) Isaac asked his father where the lamb for the offering would come from.
(vii) Abraham told Isaac that God would provided the lamb for a burnt offering.
(viii) When they arrived at the place God had commanded, Abraham built an altar.
(ix) He bound Isaac/laid him on the altar upon the wood.
(x) Abraham took the knife to slay his son but the angel of the Lord stopped him.
(xi) Abraham saw a ram, which he offered instead of his son.
(xii) He called the name of the place, The Lord will provide. .
(xii) The angle appeared to Abraham a second time and gave him promises because of his obedience.
(xiv) Abraham returned with his men to Beersheba. 6 x 1 6 marks
(b)(i) In Jewish Community, circumcision is for male children only whereas in African practices, it is for boffin male and female.
(ii) Among the Jews, circumcision is performed on babies of 8 days old whereas in traditional African communities, it is done during adolescence stage.
(iii) In African communities, it is a test of courage, whereas in Jewish community, it is a sign of covenant with God.
(iv) Circumcision in African communities is a communal practice whereas among the Jews, only members of the immediate family participate.
(v) In traditional African communities, initiates take up responsibilities while among the Jews, the initiates are too young to shoulder any responsibility.
(vi) In African communities, circumcision is carried out during speciﬁc seasons while among the Jews, it is continuous. 4 x 2 8 marks
(c) Ways in which Christians identify themselves in the society today.
(i) Christians wear speciﬁc designs of clothes.
(ii) They abstain from eating some kinds of food/taking some drinks.
(iii) By carrying/wearing the rosary/cross/the ﬂag/badges/rings.
(iv) They have special ways of greetings/salutations.
(v) Through making personal testimonies/pronouncements.
(vi) By owning speciﬁc Bible versions/literature.
(vii) Through speaking in tongues.
(viii) Use of speciﬁc church designs.
(ix) Use of different title’s names.
(x) Through ways in which they worship.
(xi) By residing in secluded homes/houses. (6 x 1 =6 marks)
(3)(a) Ways in which prophet Samuel promoted the worship of Yahweh in Israel.
(i) He prayed/interceded for the people.
(ii) He mediated between God and the Israelites.
(iii) He performed priestly duties/made sacriﬁces.
(iv) He condemned King Saul for disobeying God.
(v) He warned the elders of Israel against demanding for a political King/dangers of rejection.
(vi) He condemned King Saul for disobeying God.
(vii) He warned the elders of Israel against demanding for a political King/dangers of
(viii) He anointed kings over Israel. .
(ix) He obeyed God’s command‘s /instructions/was exemplary.
(4 x 2 =8 marks)
(b) Effects of idolatry in Israel during the time of Prophet Elijah.
(i) God raised prophets to bring Israel back to the covenant way of life.
(ii) There was persecution/hostility/towards Yahweh’s people/prophets.
(iii) Bad prophets/prophetesses were brought to Israel.
(iv) There was corruption/social injustices/people rejected the covenant way of life.
(v) Israelites practised Semitism mixed the worship of Yahweh with Baal.
(vi) There was drought in Israel for three years as a divine curse on the nation.
(vii) Israel lost its identity as a nation of God’s people.
(viii) A contest was held at Mount Carmel to prove who was the true God.
(ix) Elijah ﬂed the country/was sustained by God’s power during the period of the drought. (6 x I =6 marks)
(c) Lessons Christians learn about social justice from the story of Naboth’s vineyard.
(i) Christians should not use their position in leadership to acquire wealth irregularly/falsely.
(ii) Christians should protect the poor against corrupt leaders.
(iii) They should safe guard property received through inheritance/according to the law.
(iv) They should not be misled by their friends/relatives to go against the law.
(v) Christians should execute justice/protest rights/freedom of citizens.
(vi) they should condemn all forms of injustice in the society.
(vii) Christians should champion/tight for the rights of the weak in the society.
(viii) There is punishment for those who exploit the poor/others. (6 x 1= 6 marks)
( c) Characteristics of false prophets in the Old Testament.
(i) False prophets did not have a divine call/raised themselves.
(ii) They spoke falsehoods/lies.
(iii) They prophesied out of their own minds/imaginations.
(iv) They prophesied what the people wanted to hear/according to circumstances.
(v) They misled people from the covenant way of life/promoted idolatry.
(vi) They hindered the work of true prophets.
(vii) They worked for material gain/paid for their services.
(viii) Their prophecies were not fulﬁlled. (6 x 1= 6 marks)
(4) (a) The teaching of_prophet Amos on Israel’s election.
(i) Israel’s election was out of God’s own initiative/favour for them.
(ii) God delivered the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt. –
(iii) He led them during the exodus.
(iv) He protected them in the wilderness.
(v) He defeated all their enemies.
(vi) God gave them special land to inherit.
(vii) God raised prophets among them to lead them in their religious life.
(ix) God was to punish the Israelites because of their disobedience.
(6 x l= 6 marks) (4)(b) Factors that hinder Christians from practising their faith in God.
(i) Lack of role-models/mentor ship.
(ii) Job commitment.
(iii) Social injustices.
(iv) Peer pressure.
(v) False teachings/different interpretation of the Bible.
(vi) Greed for power/wealth.
(vii) Permissiveness in society.
(viii) Science and technology.
(x) Sickness/ill health.
(xi) Inﬂuence from mass media.
(xii) Cultural inﬂuence/Ethnicity/Racism.
(xiii) Gender bias.
(xiv) Generation gap. (8 x 1= 8 marks)
(4)(c) The measures taken by Nehemiah to restore the Jewish Co
(i) Nehemiah organized for the Mosaic law to be read/interpreted to the people.
(ii) He led the Jews in the renewal/celebration of the Feast of Booths /Shelters.
(iii) The people fasted/held a national day of confession of their sins.
(iv) The covenant was sealed through signing of the agreement by Nehemiah leaders.
(v) He led the people in taking of an oath of obedience to the Mosaic law/ contribution towards the maintenance of the temple.
(vi) Nehemiah re-distributed the inhabitants of Jerusalem/the countryside.
(vii) He dedicated the walls /the gates of Jerusalem in a ceremonial procession.
(viii Through the reading of the law, the Jews isolated themselves from the foreigners.
(ix) Nehemiah cleansed the temple/brought back the Levities/singers to their positions.
(x) He stopped traders from carrying out commercial activities at the temple gates on the Sabbath day.
(xi) Nehemiah made the Jews take an oath not to marry children to foreigners. (7 x 1 =7 marks)
(5)(a) Why Nehemiah introduced the Policy of separation of Jews from foreigners. .
(i) Nehemiah wanted to keep the Jewish community pure.
(ii) The Jews were a minority group which needed to preserve their identity/culture.
(iii) Nehemiah wanted to separate/unite the Jews who returned from exile.
(iv) To solve conﬂicts over land ownership.
(v) Intermarriage would lead the Jews into idolatry.
(vi) The law of Moses was against association with foreigners.
(vii) Children boom out of intermarriage could not speak the Hebrew language.
(viii) Religious reforms could not be effectively carried out.
(4 x 2= 8 marks)
(5)(b)Ways in which the government of Kenya supports church leaders in their work.
(i) The government gives ﬁnancial/material assistance for development.
(ii) The government supports church-sponsored institutions.
(iii) By setting land aside for construction of church facilities.
(iv) The government allows freedom of worship.
(v) By availing facilities to host church workshops/seminars/conferences.
(vi) By including CRE in the curriculum.
(vii) By employing some of them as Chaplains in education institutions and in the aimed forces.
(viii) Organizing national prayer days.
(ix) Supporting leaders in conducting their charitable services.
(x) Through the development of the infrastructure.
(xi) The government has granted permission to the church to operate electronics media station.
(xii) The government recognizes the church calender.
(5 x 1= 5 marks)
(5)(c)Causes of death in traditional African Communities.
(iv) Breaking of taboos
(v) Failure to perform certain taboos
(vi) Breaking of an oath
(vii) Offending the ancestors
(viii) Natural calamity
(ix) Wars and raids.
(6 x 1= 6 marks)
(6)(b) S_significance of rituals performed after the death of a person in traditional African Communities.
(i) Wailing/crying is a sign of sorrow/announcing death.
(ii) Making sacriﬁces to appease the ancestors/deceased.
(iii) Prayers are made to ask the ancestors to accept the dead in the world of spirits.
(iv) Sharing of members of the bereaved family signify new life in the community.
(v) Singing and dancing depict anger towards death/in praise of the dead.
(vi) Washing/oiling of the body before burial shows respect to the departed .
(vii) Burying of the dead in the ancestral land shows that one is still a member of the community.
(viii) Burying the dead with personal belongings symbolizes life after death.
(ix) Driving of cattle/livestock shows chasing away of evil spirits which caused death.
(x) Feasting/drinking is meant to bid farewell to the dead.
(xi)Breaking of pots/destruction of property symbolizes the disorder brought by death.
(xii) Sharing of deceased‘s property among relatives as a sign of solidarity.
(xiii) Lighting of ﬁre signiﬁes chasing away evil spirits/warning spirits of the deceased.
(xiv) Pouring of libation shows continuity of life.
(7 x 1 = 7 marks)
(6)(c) Moral Values promoted during funeral Ceremonies in traditional African Communities
(xii) Self control
(7 x l = 7) marks
5.3.2 Christian Religious Education Paper 2 (313/2)
(1a) annunciation of the birth of John the baptist.
(i) Angel Gabriel appeared to Zechariah as he performed his priestly duties in the temple;
(ii) The angel stood by the right side of the alter;
(iii) Zechariah was ﬁlled with fear when he saw the angel;
(iv) The angel told him not to be afraid because his prayer had been heard;
(v) The angel told Zechariah that the wife would bear him a son/the son would be called
(vi) The angel informed Zechariah the work/qualities of the son to be bom.
(vii) Zechariah did not believe the angel’s message because he and his wife were advanced in age;
(viii) The angel revealed his identity as Gabriel who had been sent by God to bring the message.
(ix) Because of his unbelief, the angel made him dumb until the baby is bom.
(1)(b) What Christians learn about the person and mission of John the baptist from the message of angel Gabriel to Zechariah.
(i) John would bring joy/gladness to many people;
(ii) He would be great before God;
(iii) John would be a Nazarite/would not drink any wine;
(iv) He would be ﬁlled with the Holy spirit;
(v) He would reconcile the Israelites with God.
(vi) He would have the spirit/power of Elijah.
(vii) He would bring justice;
(viii) He would prepare people for the coming of the Messiah.
(6 x l = 6 marks)
(2)(a) Ways in which the church in Kenya assists families to cope with challenges facing them
(i) The church organises seminars/workshops for different groups on family life;
(ii) Offering guidance and counselling;
(iii) Paying visits to families;
(iv) Producing/disseminating literature on proper Christian living;
(v) Preaching ﬁnancial/material support to the ready families;
(vi) Giving ﬁnancial/material support to the ready families;
(vii) Praying for the families;
(viii) Providing vocational training;
(ix) Offering employment to jobless people;
(x) Condemning vices which threaten families.
8 x l = 8 marks
(c) The call of the ﬁrst disciples of Jesus (Luke 5: 1-ll)
(i) Jesus was standing by the lake of Gennesaret:
(ii) He saw two boats without the ﬁshermen:
(iii) He entered Simon’s boat/asked them to push it into the water;
(iv) He sat down/taught people from the boat;
(v) He asked Simon to push the boat into the deep water/cast the nets for a catch;
(vi) Simon told Jesus that they had been ﬁshing the whole night without success;
(vii) He obeyed Jesus‘ command let the nets down:
(viii) They caught a lot of ﬁsh/asked their partners in the other boat to assist them remove the nets.
(ix) They ﬁlled both boats with ﬁsh/the boats began to sink:
(x) Simon Peter and his companions were astonished at the miraculous catch of ﬁsh/Peter asked Jesus to depart from him because he was sinful man.
(xi) Jesus told Peter not to be afraid because he was to catch men from then;
(xii) They brought their boats to land/followed Jesus.
8 x l = 8 marks
(2)(a) Reasons why Jesus chose the twelve disciples
(i) In order to teach them the secrets of the Kingdom of God.
(ii) To have companions/person assistants;
(iii) To form an inner grap which should assist him during his public ministry;
(iv) To be witnesses to his saving acts in the world:
(v) To reveal his person/give a new understanding of his messiah ship:
(vi) It symbolised the reconstruction of the twelve tribes of Israel.
(vii) To train/prepare them for the mission after his death.
(vii) To lay a foundation for the establishment of the church.
(ix) To continue with the biblical theme of election in which God chooses anyone to serve him.
6 x 1 = 6 marks
(2)(b) Lessons that Christians learn from the call of the ﬁrst disciples.
(i) Christians learn that God chooses anyone regardless of their status in the society;
(ii) He gives them duties/responsibilities to serve him in various capacities;
(iii) They should be obedient to Jesus” instructions/commands;
(iv) Christians should be humble/accept their weaknesses;
(v) They learn that God can intervene in their lives;
(vi) Christians should work together as a team;
(vii) God reveals himself in everyday activities;
(ix) Christians should be ready to abandon forsake their past lives fort he sake of Christ.
(x) They should respond to Jesus‘ call instantly/immediately.
6 x l = 6 marks
(2)(c) Jesus’ teaching on watchfulness and readiness
(i) Believers should be dressed for his coming;
(ii) They should keep their lamps burning;
(iii) They should be awake/alert;
(iv) Those who are found waiting
(v) They should be prepared at all times since they do not know the time for Christ’s coming;
(vi) Believers should continue working until Christ comes back;
(vii) The servants/believers who are drunkards/mistreat fellow workers will be punished;
(viii) Those who know what is required of them/their masters will and fail to do it will receive a severe beating;
(ix) Believers are expected to respond to God according to how much they have received from Him.
(x) Those who do wrong out of ignorance will receive lesser beatings/punishment.
(3)(a) The parable of the widow and the unjust judge
(i) There was a judge who neither feared God nor regarded man;
(ii) There was a widow who kept on coming to the judge to settle a case between her and her enemies/adversaries;
(iii) The judge at ﬁrst refused to grant the request of the widow;
(iv) The widow did not give up/persisted on her request;
(v) The judge was afraid of getting warn out by the widows’ insistence;
(vi) The judge ﬁnally accepted to grant the widow her request.
(vii) Jesus said that God would vindicate/grant the request of those who pray to Him persistently;
(vii) Jesus said that God responds to these who pray to Him in faith speedily.
(3)(b) Reasons why Christians should have faith in god
(i) God fulﬁl’s the promises he makes to human beings;
(ii) Faith is a requirement for all Christians;
(iii) Those who pray in faith receive their request;
(iv) Christians are dependent on God for all things;
(v) Faith is a sign of commitment to God;
(vi) It is through faith, in God that Christians can perform miracles/great things.
(vii) Christians who have faith in God can be saved/healed;
(viii) Faith in God helps Christians to overcome temptations/face challenges
(ix) Faith in God enables the Christians to wait patiently for second coming of Jesus/Kingdom of God.
6 x 1 =6 marks
(3)(c) The gifts of the holy spirit
(i) Word of Wisdom;
(ii) Word of Knowledge;
(iii) Gift of Faith;
(iv) Gift of Healing;
(v) Gift of working miracles;
(vi) Gift of Prophecy;
(vii) Gift of speaking in tongues;
(viii) Interpreting of tongues;
(ix) Distinguishing between spirits.
8 x l = 8 marks
(4)(a) How the life of peter was transformed on the day of pentecost
(i) He was ﬁlled with the power of the Holy Spirit;
(ii) He spoke in tongues;
(iii) He defended the apostles that they were not drunk;
(iv) Peter become courageous;
(v) He preached the word of God;
(vi) He became a witness of the work/death and resurrection of Jesus Christ;
(vii) He was able to remember/narrate old testament scriptures;
(viii) He gained wisdom/advised the people on what to do.
6 x 1 =6 marks
(4)(b) Ways in which the gifts of the holy spirit are abused in the church today
(i) Some Christians pretend that they have a certain gift of the Holy spirit;
(ii) By asking for payment before healing the sick;
(iii) Christians misuse the gift of prophecy by giving wrong information;
(iv) Some Christians may impart demonic powers on the innocent/ignorant as they claim to perfonn miracles;
(v) Some Christians who possess the gifts of the Holy spirit develop pride/ arrogance;
(vi) Some use the gifts to bring division in the church/creating splinter groups;
(vii) Some Christians refuse to utilize the gifts they posses/personalize the gifts;
(vii) Speaking in tongues during worship leads to disorder/confusion if the tongues are not interepreted/understood. 6 x l = 6 marks
(4)(c) Importance of Leisure
(i) Leisure enables an individual to spend time with God;
(ii) It enables one to rest the body;
(iii) It helps one to rejuvenate/regain lost energy:
(iv) It offers an opportunity for one to socialise with friends/family;
(v) People are able to discover new ideas/information during leisure time:
(vi) It gives one opportunity to develop talents:
(vii) It enables one to serve others/the needy:
(viii) It provides an opportunity for one to take care of the environment:
(ix) It helps to maintain/improve one”s health.
6 x l = 6 marks
(5)(a) Leisure activities common to Christianity and Traditional African Communities
(iii) Sporting activities:
(viii) Buying/exchange of goods;
(ix) Taking siesta;
7 x l = 7 marks
(5)(b) The dangers of using illicit drugs in Kenya today: “
(i) There is an increase in rate of crimes committed;
(ii) Use of illicit drugs leads to sexual immorality/contracting sexually transmitted infections/HIV and Aids;
(iii) Dependence on illicit drugs depletes resources leading to poverty;
(iv) Illicit drugs can damage vital organs;
(v) Illicit drugs causes indiscipline in institutions of learning;
(vi) The number of street children/families is increasing as a result of using the drugs
(vii) Use of illicit drugs is illegal/the offenders are liable for punishment;
(viii) Use of illicit drugs can cause employer/employee conﬂicts;
(ix) Illicit drug users become irresponsible/quarrelsome/irritable leading to family disagreements/breakup.”
(x) Use of illicit drugs can lead to murder/death.
7 x l = 7 marks
(5)(c) How science and technology has improved human life.
(i) Modem means of transport enables human beings to travel faster;
(ii) Use of electronic/print media: human beings are able to access/pass information to large audience;
(iii) Use of industrial machines enables work to be done faster/efficiently;
(iv) Use of fertilizers/Agricultural machinery has led to increased production/yields/ preservation of food.
(iv) Use of medicine/medical equipment has prolonged human life/reduces suffering:
(v) Use of equipment related to weather forecast assists human beings in understanding their environment;
(vi) New sources of energy have enhanced human life.
4 x 2 = 8 marks
(6)(a) Reasons why Christians are opposed to euthanasia
(i) God is the only one who gives life and thus should be the one to take it away.
(ii) Euthanasia equals to murder which is biblically condemned/Thou shall not kill.
(iii) It destroys God’s image in human beings:
(iv) Human judgement is limited and therefore cannot make correct decision on terminating the life of others:
(v) Medical ethics only allows a doctor to sustain life and not to take it away;
(vi) It is against Jesus’ mission on earth to heal the sick:
(vii) Suffering is part of a Christian’s life from the teachings of Jesus and therefore it cannot be used to justify euthanasia:
(viii) The works of mercy involve saving life/not destroying it;
(ix )It is a constitutional right to uphold human life.
6 x 1 = 6 marks
(6)(b) Ways in which Christians can help to control desertiﬁcation
(i) Christians need to practise afforestation/reafforestation programmes;
(ii) By practising agro-forestry; ‘
(iii) Using alternative sources of energy as opposed to charcoal/ﬁrewood.
(iv) Providing education to the public or how to preserve the environment:
(v) Participating in environmental conservation programme;
(vi) Donating/giving ﬁnancial assistance to bodies that control desertiﬁcation;
(vii) Protecting all water catchment areas;
(viii) Carrying/practising better methods of farming;
(ix) Reporting cases of forest destruction to relevant authorities;
(x) By participating in the enactment of laws on environmental conservation;
(xi) Providing guidance and counselling/advice to those involved in activities related to environmental degradation.
(6 x 1 = 6 marks)